Xochilth OrtizEnvironmental Systems Timeline essay Dust bowl During the 1930s there was a dry period in the lands of the Southern Plain in the United States. The dust bowl lasted a decade however, it left a long term effect in our economy. First there was a drought and then in 1931 dust storms started to hit this region. There were many severe dust storms that affected the environment and the people living in it. Due to the dust bowl livestock and people suffered, some people along with their animals were killed by the multiple dust storm and the high winds. The lands from Texas to Nebraska were especially affected. The winds were so strong that crops started to fail in the entire region. THe dust bowl devastated the economy and contributed to the Great Depression that lasted from 1929 to 1939. This drove many people along with their family to move away from their home to look for work and better living conditions. Causes of the Dust Bowl The dust bowl was caused by the changes in weather and land policies. In general it was caused by economic and agricultural factors. The new policies came in to light after the civil war, because people were now inspired to move westward (Manifest Destiny) so they began to farm and live in these new lands. For example, the homestead act of 1862, one of the most important acts in history because it encouraged thousands of people to move to the Great Plains if they wanted free land. The homestead act was an law that granted citizens and even freed slaves land if they move west and started to farm. They were required and were only approved if they payed a registration fee, if they stayed in the land of five years, and if they build a house in the land they claimed. Additionally, if they wanted to purchase the land they had to pay 1.25 dollars per acre after living in the land for six months or more. They were expected to make the land that they were granted successful. They could claim up to 160 ¨free” acres if they wanted. After the Civil war many people claimed the free acres. There were about 15,000 acres claimed at the beginning. Furthermore, more people decided to participate in this act, in the end 1.6 million people claimed their new land and were approved. However it wasn’t that easy to take care of the land. Many people failed to improve the granted land because they did not have enough resources and or experience in this field. Acts like the homestead act, the Kinkaid act of 1904, and the Enlarged Homestead Act of 1909 encouraged many people with experience and without experience to move westward. Now that people have moved west they started to grow crops. And so did the overplowing began,which started to damage the land. Farmers started to tear the grassland because they wanted to harvest a bumper crop. When crops began to fail and drought started to kick in 1931 the dry and over plowed land was exposed. Without anything to hold down the soil, the strong winds started to blow it away creating multiple massive dust storms that damaged the economy and the people present during that time. The Industrial Revolution The industrial revolution took place from the the 18th to 19th century in Europe and in America. It was was a period where rural societies turned into urban societies. It was also a period where machines started to take over production. Before the industrial revolution people usually worked from home. They produced items by hand. using simple machines and even simple tools. People did not need to move to more populated areas to be successful because they could do the work at home. Not until the late 1800s did they begin moving to a more populated area because of the available job and improved conditions.. That is when the industrial revolution really began (late 1800s). Industrialization switched handmade products to products made by powered and purposeful machines. The machines in the industrial revolution were the complete opposite to the simple machinery they used it the past centuries. These powered machines made mass production and created factories, which created jobs. Jobs that were only available highly populated cities. That was why many people decided to move into cities. Due to industrialization there was an improvement in the systems in transportation and communication. It was much easier to move from place to place and to communicate to people. In general the standard of living improved during this period The industrial revolution started in the United States years after the civil war. During that time people were trying to rebuild the nation. Americans were learning about the advancements in the eastern hemisphere more specifically Britain. Later people in the united states began to see innovations in the forms of transportation, communication, and through the emergence of electricity that in Britain had experienced in the earlier era. Keep in mind that during this time Britain had already experienced their industrial revolution. Innovation Because of the nation experiencing the industrial revolution the nation saw improvements in transportation, production, electrification, and communication. We were able to expand westward because of the new innovation. The inventions during this period had a lasting impact in our society and economy. For instance the Spinning Jenny. The Spinning Jenny was a machine that helped workers spin moore wool at once. It was created by the now famous James Hargreaves in 1764. The spinning jenny substantially increased the productivity in the textile industry. Furthermore, an invention that significantly improved the way people communicated back then was the telegraph. Samuel Moose was responsible for the creation of the telegraph in 1836.It made it possible for people to communicate between the east and the west. It was much faster than before. These and other inventions made life easier for the average person and itled so to where we are today.