The optimistic view comes from the fact that Nick Bostrom believes we should make the goals of
superintelligence compatible with our goals and principles. To achieve that, he considers that it is urgent
to establish a new science focused on the study of advanced agents of intelligence and artificial
awareness. The author joins in this the requests formulated for a long time by some of his colleagues.
Trained teams, not only of computer specialists, but of mathematicians and philosophers, should be
funded to deal with this issue.
But one of the reasons that there are no motivated sponsors for this idea is the fact that superintelligence
is still considered unrealistic. That lead us to ask two questions: How far could the machine intelligence
go to? Could we consider this type of superintelligence realistic?
Before reading the book, we might ask ourselves about the reasons that made the author think about the
possibility of reaching superintelligence. However, having a look at the different advancements in
Artificial Intelligence (AI) field could make the question of a possible superintelligence very relevant.
In fact, the book introduces amazing examples that demonstrate that we are not far from real AI. One of
the examples that caught my attention is the example of the drone capable of identifying targets defined
as enemies and destroying them without authorization. But these drones must not, in principle, be able
to attack undifferentiated humans. In addition to that in the book, Bostrom reports that many leading
researchers in AI place a 90% probability on the development of human-level machine intelligence by
between 2075 and 2090. He believes that superintelligence, vastly outstripping ours, would follow.
Moreover, in order to give my humble opinion about how realistic a future superintelligence could be,
we must precise a bit this notion. In fact, intelligence could be comprehension or competence.
Nowadays, researchers are focusing on competence over comprehension. If a computer is competent
without comprehension then it is a tool because it still requires a human being to use it or make its use
worthwhile, but if a computer comprehends and is competent then it is a colleague because it has its
own autonomy. This is the way AI based on machine learning is going to. In other words, more
autonomy that could lead to superintelligence. Not to mention the advancements that are going on in
Neuronal engineering. Neural networks are a tool for multi-dimensional optimization, often via a
gradient descent technique, and nothing more. To Bostrom, this procedure may not be an exact
duplication of the brain’s operations, but it is an effective tool for generating a general AI that could be
competent in navigating the real world like a human. As computational hardware gets more efficient,
the capacity for ‘silicon brains’ to outstrip the performance of ‘organic brain’ that we have inherited
from our evolutionary past is consequently unavoidable.

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