The new deal all started
with the great depression. America’s stock market, which was doing incredibly
well crashed and shook the whole United States. The country was in it’s most
severe economic downturn that was ever documented. By 1932, almost a quarter of
the American job force was unemployed. In 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt
took office and he quickly took action to try and save the economy. He started
to provide tons of new jobs to those in need along with constituting a series
of experimental projects and programs that is now known today as the New Deal.
implementation of the New Deal was a huge sigh of relief for the United States.
Not only did this help with the economy, but this program permanently changed
the federal government’s relationship to the United states population. Before
the New Deal, the government was basically unattached from the lives of most
member of the public. There was a sense that people should take care of
themselves, and if they couldn’t other families or non-profit charities stepped
in. The government did not really have a lot to do with helping the people out,
The New deal changed all of this. President Roosevelt made sure that the
government was doing their part in ensuring that people felt comfortable and
made sure they were secure. The New Deal started programs like Social Security
and the FDIC that we still use today. With the New deal implemented people
gained a sense of trust in the government and felt that when things went bad,
the government would always be there to help. The people came to the
expectation that the government would guarantee their economic safety and success.
This sense of togetherness is what started piecing things back together.
Key objectives to the New Deal were relief, recovery, and reform. RELIEF
was the act of Giving direct aid to reduce the suffering of the poor and the
unemployed, RECOVERY was Recovery of the economy by Creating jobs and helping
businesses grow and REFORM was Reform of the financial system to ease the
economic crisis and introduce steady programs to avoid another depression.
Through these three R’s, president Roosevelt pin pointed different aspects of
the economy from banks to the condition of the people. He helped people re-claim
faith in themselves while also bringing hope to everyone. He promised quick and
forceful action that would soon bring change. As a result of his efforts and
with a change of the government in the people’s lives from being inactive to
active, America was able to walk on constant ground.
The alphabet agencies were U.S. federal government agencies
that were created as part of the New Deal. Majority of these agencies were created to
help suppress the great depression and were established during Roosevelt’s
first 100 days in office. The Civilian Conservation Corps(CCC) was created in
1933 and its purpose was to conserve resources. It achieved this by hiring over
2.5 million men to work on projects such as planting trees, fighting soil
erosion on federal land, and creating parks. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation(FDIC)
was created in the summer in 1933. This agency set forth regulations for banks
and provided depositors an insurance of up to 5,000 dollars. The FDIC restored
confidence in banks and promoted savings because people no longer had
the fear that their money would be lost in a bank failure
and there was nothing they could do about it. Established in 1934, the Federal
Housing Administration(FHA) focused on the growth of building the industry. The
FHA promised a bright future by providing the money necessary to construct
low-income housing. Today, more Americans own homes than people in any other
country in the world. The National
Labor Relations Act ‘s (NLRA) purpose was to protect the rights
of companies with organized
labor. This agency
legalized practices such as “closed shops” which was when only union
members could work and cooperatively bargain. Of all of the president’s reform
programs the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was the most ambitious. It was
created in 1933 and its purpose was to develop the Tennessee River watershed.
This agency restored the region by building 16 dams to control flooding, generate hydraulic power, and increase
crop production. Most importantly this agency provided jobs and low-cost
housing to the region.
Americans and women were some of the groups that benefitted least from the New
Deal. Native Americans already had a history of mishandling so that was no
help. White crusaders were more concerned with assimilating Native Americans to
their ways then they were about helping them out of their government caused
poverty. John Collier tried to change policies that forced assimilation of
Native Americans but, many of the government officials said that his bill strayed
from the goal of assimilation. Women’s roles in the 1930s were almost
always a housewife or a mother. With this being said, many of the New Deal
programs were not directed at them. During the New Deal’s peak year and during
its largest agency only 13.5 percent of those in the Works Progress
Administration (WPA) program were women. Early on in the program,
women were always given the lower paying jobs such as sewing, bookbinding,
caring for the elderly, and working in nursery schools.