Question #7

            The
Pantheon originally built by Agrippa in 27 BCE. Hadrian had rebuilt the dome
building during 118-125 CE. One of the largest dome built until Justinian’s
Hagia Sophia. The Pantheon dedicated to all the gods or sky gods, was built
using heavier materials in the bottom and lighter materials building up the
dome. This temple was built using a combination of circle and rectangle. The
dome is built narrower as it is built up. Dome is made of bricks and concrete
material to help it stand up. Type of plan to construct the building using a
central plan. Arches to help the building be more stable. The pantheon also
included coffers rectangular indentation on the dome to decrease the thickness,
to minimize casualties in case of any disasters. Pantheon left with a hold
above the peak of the dome known as the oculus where light shines inside. Made
light of oculus to shine to highlight different parts of the interior during
different times of the day. Features of the Pantheon reflects Greek
Architecture, free standing columns, Corinthian capitals, and pediment. Porch
of the pantheon is supported by these columns and stone block of masonry is set
behind and above the porch. Also included niches which would have sculptures or
other objects on the walls. “…,
the Pantheon by the time of Trajan and Hadrian was primarily associated with
the power of the emperors and their divine authority.” (Ranogajec, n.d.)

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            The
Justinian’s Hagia Sophia built around 532-537 CE. “Hagia Sophia’s being seems
to cry out for another-worldly explanation of why it stands because much within
the building seems dematerialized, an impression that must have been very real
in the perception of the medieval faithful.” (William, n.d.) Uses the style of
arch construction to allow open and grand interior spaces. Multiple domes in
the building mostly half domes. Arches that form spherical triangles or
pendentives. Dome is supported by these pendentives, arches, and four large
piers. Also uses the same plan as the Pantheon known as central plan. Gods the
Hagia Sophia were dedicated to Jesus Christ. Hagia Sophia made to outdo
Solomon’s Temple. Hagia Sophia also incorporated the use of outside lighting to
light the interior of the building. Light shines from the drums or windows
instead of the ceiling like the Pantheon. Use of light inside the temple to
give the feeling of being in heaven like the light shining down in the
Pantheon.  Large dome on a square base,
dome does not cover the entire interior. Decorations inside the building with
some mosaics on the side aisles made with expensive materials compared to the
cheaper materials in the Pantheon. Large piers with arches that comes across
the space. Use of large spaces to direct visitors. Goals of the architects were
to keep a huge amount of space in the building as well as supporting the dome. Purpose
of the building to create a basilica that would show the power of the emperor
and relation to religion as a Christian.

            The
Pantheon made with a single narrow dome that leads the viewers upwards towards
the oculus. A single light shining down into Pantheon with purpose of showing
light as heavenly. Hagia Sophia had many windows with light shining through
each of them to give people the feeling of being in heaven. Both temples wanted
to show some divine functions. Both temples had uses of arches to help support
the dome. Materials used to make the Pantheon were much cheaper as compared to
Hagia Sophia where it used more expensive materials. Pendentives mainly
supported the Hagia Sophia while the Pantheon dome was made of concrete mix
with coffers to minimize the thickness of the dome. Both used a central plan as
construction.

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