Military and Terrorism    Since 2002, service in the armed forces has opened to volunteers only. The legal age to serve as a Spanish citizen or legal immigrant in the voluntary armed forces is from age 18-26. Those who serve have a 2-3 year obligation, and women are allowed to serve in all branches of the military. However, the Spanish government has retained their right to mobilize citizens from ages 19-25 if a national emergency arises. Depending on service length, a person is required to retire from non- nco enlisted armed forces from the ages of 45-58. Spain has a military budget of $7.6 billion, and they have 11,759,557 people available for military service. The military branches in Spain consist of the Army, Spanish Navy, and the Spanish Air Force.     The active personnel in the army is 204,692 people, and the reserve personnel consists of 16,200 people. ETA is an abbreviation for the Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (“Basque Homeland and Liberty”), and it is an organization in Spain that used terrorism to get Basque as an independent state. This organization ran from the years of 1959-2011. The ETA has supporters in France and Spain that are willing to carry out deadly attacks. There were countless attempts at a cease-fire, however, multiple times the Basque organization carried out attacks such as a bombing in Madrid in 2006, and bombings in the city of Burgos. All of these attacks were said to have a motive because of the terrorist group’s need for independence. This group has killed over 820 people in over 40 years of violence. Most of these people include police officers, local and national politicians who opposed their separatist demands, and members of the Guardia Civil. In more recent years, however, attacks have slowed down because the group’s capabilities have decreased.     Spain has not been involved in any major wars in the past 20 years. However, they were involved in a conflict known as the Perejil Island Crisis. The Perejil Island Crisis was between Spain and Morocco and it took place on July 11-20, 2002. This crisis was a bloodless armed conflict that happened on the small island of Perejil. This island has been the center of a disagreement between the two countries ever since Moroccan soldiers went in and occupied the island. Spain wanted to evict them off of the island, and they approached the island with naval units, combat aircraft, etc. They took some Moroccans prisoner, but they were released a few hours later. On both sides, government officials stated that they wanted to find a solution to the crisis that was non-violent. This island has been Spanish territory since 1668, and Morocco says they sent troops to crack down on illegal immigration and terrorism. This conflict ended with everybody unharmed, and friendly relations between the two. 

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