Literature Review:

they were introduced in the 1940s, antibiotics have been considered as one of
the most successful types of chemotherapy in medicine. They played a major role
in controlling major infectious diseases that plagued the human history for
many years and contributed in saving many lives (Aminov, 2009). However,
Studies have shown that the use antibiotics without a clear indication is a
major issue and carries the risk of antibiotic resistance and increasing the
challenges faced by the treating physician or institute. This was found mainly
due to their overuse, incorrect dosing and extending duration. (Hecker, Aron,
Patel, Lehmann, & Donskey, 2003). Antibiotic prescribing may be associated
with unfavorable side effects, which range from gastrointestinal disturbances to
fatal anaphylactic shock. These side effects have been related to the misuse of
broad-spectrum agents (Wise et al., 1998). With the increase of infection rates
and the rise of morbidity rates, The World Health Organization (WHO) has taken
that into considerations and gave the year 2011 a theme titled “Antibiotic
resistance: No action today, No cure tomorrow.” (Sharma, 2011).

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

studies in the kingdom showed a higher prevalence of multi-drug-resistance
infection, including broad ranges of bacteria. (Memish et al., 2012; Shibl et
al., 2014). Antibiotic resistance has been identified as a major threat to
public health in Saudi Arabia following the increased number of reported
misuse, with the children being the most affected and threatened by these side effects
(Alothman et al., 2016) (Abdul Rahman Alnemri, 2016). Recent local studies
considered antimicrobial resistance in Saudi Arabia is a challenging threat
requiring cultivated efforts from different sectors to successfully achieve a
significant control. It is essential for practitioners to follow infection
prevention protocols and be aware of the risk of antibiotic abuse to limit the
spread of infections (Zowawi, 2016). In Saudi Arabia, the Ministry of Health
(MOH) provides health services at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels.
Primary Health Care (PHC) centers provide promotive, preventive and curative
primary care services. The number of PHC centers in Saudi Arabia exceeds 2000
centers, and these comprise 60% of total health service in the country
(Almalki, Fitzgerald, & Clark, 2011). A study has shown that antibiotics
are one of the most frequently prescribed medications by these centers
(Al-Faris & Al Taweel, 1999).

Post Author: admin


I'm Eileen!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out