IOT Based Smart Bin for Smart Cities

            

                Salunkhe Vaishali, Department Computer Engineering, Dr.D.Y.Patil School Of Engineering, Ambi.                                 [email protected]                                                       

               Dhage Amrata, Department Computer Engineering, Dr.D.Y.Patil School Of Engineering, Ambi. 

                [email protected]                                                                                               

           

              

ABSTRACT

The method of connecting the objects or things through wireless connectivity, Internet called Internet Of Things. Nowadays a variety of tasks are based on IOT. Cities in the world are becoming smarter by implementing the things around using IOT. This is a new trend in technology. Smart cities include obstacle tracking, object sensing, traffic control, tracking of our activities, examining the baby, monitoring home lights and so on. One of the objectives of smart cities is keeping the environment clean and neat But this Smart cities aim is not fulfilled without the waste management system. Hence the paper “IOT Based smart Bin for Smart Cities” has been developed. Bin management is one of the major applications of IoT. Here sensors are connected to the all the bins in different areas. It senses the level of garbage in the bin. When it reaches threshold a message is sent via GSM to the concerned person to clean it as soon as possible.

 

Keywords: IR sensors, Microcontroller, GSM Modem,

 

 

1. INTRODUCTION

Garbage management is that the assorting, transporting garbage, processing, reusing or eliminating and monitoring garbage materials. Garbage management is very crucial and it has become one of the major issues due to high population density. To reduce the impact of garbage, Municipal Corporation has developed an efficient garbage management system. In India, waste generated per capita ranges from 200g to 500g. Many organizations have estimated that in India 1.3 to 1.5 pounds of waste is generated for a person. The efficiency of collecting the garbage is poor in Indian cities compared to other countries. Thus, Indian Government is struggling to manage the garbage. Issues with respect to the disposal have become challenging with growth in population. Poor garbage collection and improper transportation facility are answerable for the earnings of garbage at all spots and points of the city. Due to these unavailable facilities, municipal garbage management is getting critical. Improper garbage management further leads to incurable diseases to living organisms. Thus to avoid waste overflow “Smart Management of Garbage” has been proposed.

 

2. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

For the garbage detection, weight sensor can be used. It gives the weight of the garbage in the Dustbin. But it doesn’t provide any information about the level of the garbage in the dustbin.

Hence author used IR sensor for garbage detection. Infrared sensor (IR sensor) is used which is a multipurpose sensor, which can detect the level of garbage. IR sensor emits the light, which is invisible to the naked eye but the electronic components can detect it. It consists of IR transmitter and IR

 

 

 

receiver. Both analog and digital output is produced by IR sensor. This sensor produces the output a logic 1? at the digital output when it senses the object and a logic 0? when it doesn’t sense any object. IR transmitter consists of LED which sends the IR beam. To receive this beam IR receiver, TSOP1738 is used. The output of TSOP1738 directly connected to the microcontroller and it has high immunity against ambient light and other electrical disturbances. It is able to transfer data up to 2400 bits per second. It needs the power supply of 5V.

IC 555 is used to design the IR transmitter of 38 KHz.

 

 

                   Fig. 1. Arduino Uno Board

 

Microcontroller is a small computer on a single integrated

Circuit containing a processor core, memory, and

Programmable input/output peripherals. It is used in

Automatically controlled products and devices. Microcontroller Atmel328 is used in this work. Figure 1 shows the Arduino Uno board used for programming which includes Microcontroller Atmel328.        

This Microcontroller is a high-performance 8-bit AVR RISC-based microcontroller combines 32KB ISP flash memory with read-while-write capabilities, 1KB EEPROM, 2KB SRAM, 23 general purposes I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, three flexible timer/counters with compare modes, SPI serial port, 6-channel 10-bit A/D converter

 

      Wireless communication can be achieved using many devices. Those devices are Zigbee, GSM, etc. In this project, GSM is used. Zigbee can also be used but the disadvantage with it is its short range, less complexity and the speed of data is less. Hence author uses GS modem because it is simple to use and it’s less cost. GSM modem is a unique type of wireless modem, accepts a SIM card and it operates similarly to a mobile phone with its own specific mobile.A GSM modem can be an external device or a PC Card / PCMCIA Card. An external GSM modem is connected to a computer through a serial cable or a USB cable. When a GSM modem is connected to a computer, this allows the computer to communicate over the mobile network. While these GSM modems are most frequently used to provide mobile internet connectivity, many of them can also be used for sending and receiving SMS and MMS message. GSM Modem sends and receives data through radio waves. In this project, GSM 900 modem is used to send the messages which are shown in figure 2. It consists of a

GSM/GPRS modem with standard communication interfaces

like RS-232 (Serial Port), USB, so that it can be easily

connected to the other devices. The power supply circuit is

also built in the module that can be turned ON by using a

suitable adaptor.

 

                                    Fig. 2. GSM Modem

 

3. BLOCK DIAGRAM

 

A. Transmitter

 Figure 3 shows the block diagram of transmitter

section. The level detector consists of IR sensors which are used to detect the level of the garbage in the dustbin. The output of

 the level detector is given to microcontroller. Four IR sensors are used to indicate the different levels of the amount of the garbage collected in the dustbin which is placed in the public area. When the dustbin is filled up to the highest level, the output of fourth IR receiver becomes active low. This output is given to microcontroller to send the message to the Control room via GSM module as shown in figure 5.

                                    Fig.3 Transmitter Section

 

B. Receiver section

Figure 4 shows the block diagram of receiver section. At receiver, the control room is present where all the activities are managed. The number of the control room depends on the dustbins present in the area. The person sitting in the control room monitors the entire system. A GSM Module is connected to the computer of the control room through the microcontroller.  The same GSM Module is used to send the message to the contractor for cleaning the dustbin. GUI is developed using MATLAB software. This GUI will be displayed on the computer screen in the control room to display the status of the garbage level in the dustbin as shown in figure 6.

                             Fig.4 Receiver section

     

4. FLOW CHART

The flowchart of the project is shown in Figure 5. It literally provides the idea for this project. The IR sensor arrangement acts as a level detector.The output of the level detector is given to the microcontroller (as shown in figure 3). The AT commands are used to facilitate the messaging service through the GSM Module. This program is burned in the microcontroller with the help of Arduino software (IDE) version1.6.1. These messages consist of information of garbage levels of respective dustbins. Depending on the information sent to control room, the authority informs the concerned person of the respective area about garbage level. Then the concerned person makes sure that the garbage of that particular area is collected by sending the cleaning vehicles.

            Fig. 5. Flowchart shows working of system

 

 

5. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE

GUI is a graphical user interface which provides a user-friendly environment to carry certain operations. The GUI for smart garbage management system proposed by authors is developed using MATLAB 2010 software and discussed in this section. In this paper, GUI is used to display different parameters and information regarding the garbage and garbage collection viz. location of the dustbin, status of the dustbin, date & time of garbage collection.

6.   CONCLUSION

This paper shows the implementation of smart garbage management system using IR sensor, microcontroller, and GSM module. This system assures the cleaning of dustbins soon when the garbage level reaches its maximum. If the dustbin is not cleaned at a specific time, then the record is sent to the higher authority who can take appropriate action against the concerned contractor. This system also helps to work or suggest applications and extensions. Monitor the fake reports and hence can reduce the corruption in the overall management system. This reduces the total number of trips of garbage collection vehicle and hence reduce the overall expenditure associated with the garbage collection. It ultimate helps to keep cleanness in the society. Therefore, the smart garbage management system makes the garbage collection more efficient   

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Our special thanks go to our guide and college professors for guiding us for representing our idea through this paper and people who have willingly helped out with their abilities.

 REFERENCES

1 Zembedded, “GSM modem interfacing with 8051 for         SMS”.

 

2 Hindustan Embedded System, “City Garbage collection indicator using RF (ZigBee) and GSM technology”.

 

3 S. Singhal and S. Pandey, “Solid waste management in India: Status and future directions”.

 

4 KanchanMahajan, “Waste Bin Monitoring System Using Integrated Technologies”, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering, and Technology, Issue 3, Issue 7, July 2014.

 

5 Marian Look, “Trash Plant: India”, earth911B.

 

6 Basic Feature, “Solid Waste Management Project by MCGM”.

 

7 Microtronics Technologies, “GSM based garbage and waste collection bins overflow indicator”, September 2013.

 

8 Keith, F., Tchobanoglous, G.: Handbook of solid waste management. McGraw-Hill (2002). 

 

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