Figure 1: Location of the Temple of Augustus and Rome   

The Temple of Augustus and Rome is an
important historical building which is a well-preserved Roman Temple
attached the Hac? Bayram Veli Mosque in Ulus, Ankara placed between significant
and historical places (figüre 1). Including Res
Gestae Divi Augusti which is an inscription of an official autobiography
of the first Roman emperor Augustus makes the temple more valuable
historically in the world because of its uniqueness.

1.H?story

Ankara, which is the capital of the Turkey, has been an important
city throughout history. There were a lot of civilizations settled in that
region of the Anatolian consecutively.
Therefore, a historical stratification is seen especially
in the place of the temple of Augustus and Rome.
             In the Galatian period, the
Temple of Men was built for the Phrygian god in the 2nd century BC. When the Galatia had a formation as a Roman
province in the Roman period, Temple of Augustus and Rome was constructed on
the ruins in 25-20 BC. In the 6th century AC, during the Byzantine period, it was converted to a
Christian church. After the Anatolian was domineered by
Ottoman Empire, the Hac? Bayram Camii was built with a corner intersecting with
the northwestern wall of the Temple of Augustus and Rome. Despite dozens of changing
civilizations chronologically in history, it proof that the sanctuaries have not be changed.
Furthermore, functions of the sacred buildings could be changed without
destruction, in spite of the fact that they have to be destroyed in order to
make show of strength of civilizations. For instance, after constructing the
Hac? Bayram Mosque, the
temple building which is attached the mosque was used as a madrasa in order to
provide ?slamic training for students. And the aim of Ottoman about location of
the mosque protecting the temple respectfully shows Ottoman religious tolerance clearly. Nowadays, that
area including a mosque and a temple still maintains its religious
value attracting many people.

 

 

 

2. Res Gestae Divi Agusti

            The Temple of Augustus and Rome has
the letters testamentary of the Augustus called Res Gestae Divi Agusti which
means accomplishment of divine Augustus. Although there were other copies of
the inscription on other place, there is only one copy in full version on the
walls of the Temple of Augustus and Rome in Ankara.

            The original text was written on two
columns in Rome for the first time. Although the columns are not existed today,
some copies of the text were preserved partially except the copy in the Temple
of Augustus and Rome because of including full text. The partial copies are
placed at Antiochia (Yalvaç) and Appollonia (Uluborlu) in Isparta province of
Turkey.

            On the walls of the temple, there
are the full text two times both Latin and Greek languages (Figure 2-3). The
reason for this to understand the inscription clearly, because Greek was the
local language in the Roman period, in spite of Latin language as an official
language. Therefore, if there was a deficiency or damaged part in the text,
they could be completed easily.

            Despite the fact that The Temple of
Augustus and Rome has more importance especially for the western people, they
did not know the existance of the full copy of the Res Gestae Divi Agusti until
the 16th century. After several expedition from West to Ankara, the full copy of
the inscription could be taken by being removed of the houses attached the
temple, and the translated text was published in 19th century by Mommsen who was a famous German
historian and legist.Figure 2-3: Monumentum Ancyranum,
Augustus Tap?na?? (Et Poetica, 2014)

            The full text consists
of an introduction and 35 paragraphs splitted into 4 groups according to their
subjects;his political activities and power, his financial supports to the
community,  relationship with other
nations, and coping skills of the Augustus. Including self-expression of the
Augustus makes the inscription more subjective. Furthermore, the full copy was
written as a first-person record. In spite of clear explanation, the text
includes implications curiously. For instance, his enemy Sextus Pompeius was
defined as a “pirate”, Marcus Antonius was mentioned as “with whom i fought the
war”, and also Brutus and Cassisus was referred as “murderers of my father”
(Eck, 2007). Although all explanations reflecting subjectivity of the text show
including propaganda features, Res Gestae Divi Agusti creates the perception of
the Roman people.

 

 

 

2.1. Content of the text

The text called Res Gestae
Divi Agusti includes 35 paragraph. Full text was written in Roma by the Augustus,
then it was delivered by hand to the nuns of the Temple of Vesta. Declaration
of the letters testamentary was made in front of the Senate.  For easily-understanding of the document, each
paragraph is summarized by headings.

1.     
Early
period of administration of the Augustus,
and his acceptance of triumvir ( one of the three administrators)

2.      Punishment of the murderers of his father

3.      War achievements

4.      Triumphs and being worthy to be commemorated as
emperor

5.      Rejection of the dictatorship, and donations
to the public

6.      Tribunician power and exercising authority

7.      Political degrees and religious titles

8.      Carrying out the census, and increasing the
number of patricians

9.      Religious ceremonies in his
honour

10.  The blessedness of the Augustus 

11.  Announcement of the Augustalia day dedicated to the Augustus

12.  The Ara Pacis Augustae for peace

13.  Closure of Ianus Quirinus Temple

14.  Glory of the sons of the Augustus

15.  Distributing food to the public

16.  Giving money to the retired soldier

17.  Wiring money to the public purse by the Augustus

18.  Donations to the public purse by the Augustus

19.  Constructing of the new Temples on public lands

20.  Repair of the state and the public structures

21.  Donations to the temples with the spoils of wars

22.  Demonstrations and games making by public and animals

23.  Demonstration of a naval battle

24.  Donating money to the Temple of Apollo

25.  Providing security in the sea  against pirates

26.  Territorial expansion and military expedition

27.  Occupation of Egypt, Sicily and Sardinia

28.  Colonies of soldiers in Africa, Sicily, Macedonia,
Syria and Spain

29.  Recovery of the several standards

30.  Conquests in Danube

31.  Coming ambassadors from other countries

32.  Kings finding asylum in Roman Empire

33.  Designation of kings

34.  Sending kings to Parthian and Median

35.   Taking the title of “Father
of my country”

When Res Gestae Divi Augusti was written, the
Augustus was 75 years old. After his death, all text was carved one by one. The
characteristic of the inscription is self-praise with practises of the
Augustus.Figure 4: Imagination of perspective view of the Temple of Augustus
and Rome (a). Original plan of the Temple can be defined as opisthodomos, cella
and pronaos from left to right (b) (Krencker & Schede, 1936, p. 43-44).

 

The Temple of Augustus and Rome has single-row
peristyle which means pseudodipteral plan (Figure 4 (b)) including 8 columns on
the short sides and 15 columns on the long sides, and the type of the columns
is the Corinthian order which is the last developed and also most decorated
with acanthus leaves in comparison to Doric
& Ionic orders (Figure 4 (a)). Its outer dimentions are 36 m to 55 m.
The building is extended along the southwest- northeast direction raised by 2
meters platform from the ground. There are three parts of the naos the term of
inner complex. These are pronaos as an entrance with four columns, cella as a
central room and opisthodomos as a space which was not seen in every temple
behind a cella with two columns including treasure and valuable articles. In
addition, the cella was a public space for priests to pray, so priests could
reach that one meter elevated space after the gate. The walls of the temple has
twenty-three layers of stone and the approximate height  is eleven meters. The length of the long
walls is twenty eight meters, and the short walls is eleven meters. In
addition, the material of the temple is stone masonry because of its strength.

 Although the temple has been well-preserved
until today, many changes were made in terms of architectural features of the
building. However, changes in religion of civilizations causes forming of the
temple. For example, after it was turned as a church, three openings were added
to illuminate the cella,because the cella was a dark space in original version
of the temple. In addition, the floor of the cella which was elevated one meter
originally was lowered to the level of inner complex. Furthermore, the wall
between the cella and the opisthodomos was removed in order to reflect basilica
or church effect adding apse which was to complete the features of a church.

              Figure 5: Galatie. Ancyre. Face antérieure de I’Augustéum (Delbet,
1872).

In the Ottoman period, there were
a lot of houses attached the temple (Figure 5). In time, residentials were
removed to protect the temple and mosque as a sacred area, and the Temple of
Augustus and Rome has become salved landscaped space (Figure 6). Today, although
all columns and also some part of the cella were destroyed, the gate section
and walls were preserved partially including Res Gestae Divi Augusti
inscription.  Figure 6: Temple of Augustus, Ankara (Okçu, 2014)

 

 

 

4. Preservation and Conservation Studies

In order to transfer to the
future, the Temple of Augustus and Rome should have been protected despite danger
of collapse and erosion. Therefore, lots of analysis and studies were tried by conservators. First of all, the problems were
identified before deciding the available structural system. The main problem
was condition of imbalance of the temple. There were stones falling down inside
of the temple,so it created centiliver walls facing with danger of collapse. On
the other hand, due to erosion, there were a lot of cracks and holes on the
walls . All problems showed the necessity of the permanent structural supports in
order to protect the existance of the unique historical building.

Before preparations for the experiments by
using similation methods and designing 3d model of the building, the records of
the current condition of the temple with tak?ng photographies and notes in
order to be used for reference in the future studies.

After a serios of the research, experiments,
and analysing related with solution of the supporting system, truss wall system
and reassembly of the opisthodomos wall were accepted available system to
prevent the collapse of the temple of Augustus and Rome (Figure 7-8).REFERENCES

 

Eck, W. (2007). The
age of Augustus (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.

 

 

Visual
Materials

Delbet, J. (1872). Galatie. Ancyre. Face antérieure de
I’Augustéum photography. Retrieved
from http://search.getty.edu/gateway/search?q=Delbet%20Prints&cat=&rows=10&srt=a&dir=s&dsp=0&img=0&pg=4

Et Poetica. (2014). Monumentum Ancyranum, Augustus Tap?na?? photography.
Retrieved July 14, 2014 from https://etpoetica.wordpress.com/2014/07/19/ankara-aniti-augustus-tapinagi/

Krencker, D., & Schede, M. (1936). Der Tempel in Ankara. Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co

Okçu, E. (2014). Temple Of Augustus (Monumentum Ancyranum). Retrieved September 24, 2014
from http://www.tourmakerturkey.com/augustus-temple.html

Uçak, B. (2016). Structural Analysis,
Evaluation and Strengthening of the Temple of Augustus in Ankara (Thesis).
Retrieved from http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/12619760/index.pdf

  

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