Environment
play a vital role in the development of plants. Other than the essential nutrients
plants required a trace amount of metal ions for their proper growth and in performing
various cellular function. Metals are essential for plant growth. Plants
required a large number of metals as fundamental micronutrients for the normal
growth and development of plants. These metals are involved in various
oxidation and reduction reactions, development, signal transduction which is in
turn essential to many cellular functions of plants iron, copper, zinc, and some other transition metals are essential
nutrients for plants (Frausto
da Silva and Williams, 2001; Clemens
et al., 2002; Morrissey
and Guerinot, 2009; Pilon,
2011).
Metal elements should be transport from the soil into the root, after that dispersed
throughout the plants crossing both the cellular and organelles layer. Trace
amount of metal particles are present in soil. Plants must utilize the
efficient mechanism to aggregate these particles.  Deficiency of the metals results in the low
nutrient crop productivity and decrease the stress tolerance (Akkermans
et al., 2016)

It
is considered that 33% of the proteins of a typical cell are metalloprotein (Finkelstein,
2009). Inside a cell metals ions are transport
by diffusion and various ion channels with the support  of the different techniques like transporter
identification by comparing the sequence, Yeast Mutant Complementation and
various gene activities assistance in  recognizing the various genes families and
transporters which are involved in metal transport such as  Zip Family, Cu regulatory transporters. Metals transporters have been examined traditionally
in great depth as models for understanding plant membrane transport.

Iron
is part of heam protein such as ferritin, it acts as a cofactor for enzymes and
involved in many biochemical process such as photosynthesis and respiration.
Although iron is an abundant metal but present in limited foam due to its
oxidized foam, Fe (III) is insoluble in neutral or basic PH. Iron deficient plants
use different strategies to take up iron. For example IRTI transporter   play an important role in uptake of iron. It
releases a reducing chelating agent that binds to the iron and helps in uptake
of iron.  Members of the Arabidopsis
NRAMP family have been shown to be involved in iron homeostasis (Curie et al.,
2000; Thomine et al., 2000).

Zinc
is required by the plants in response to the demand of plants (Nouet, C., Motte, P., & Hanikenne, M. 2011).  Zn is involved in the various cellular process
and the vital part of proteins which provide stability to the membrane (Maret, W., & Li, Y. 2009).Zn is a non redox
element but play an essential role in proteins .Plants use different approaches
to overcome the deficiency of Zn. Zinc is taken up the plants in the foam of
divalent ions .Once Zinc is take up by the plant it is neither oxidize and
redox. The behavior of zinc in the cell depend upon the existence of a divalent
cations. Recent studies have shown that different gene families of transporters
are involved in the transport of divalent cation. For example ZIP family
produce a Protein ZIP1 and ZIP2 that expressed in roots and transport the zinc
from the soil into the plant

Manganese
is essential for all organism but required in small amount. Manganese also plays
a virtual role in photosynthesis process and in the detoxification of free radicals
of oxygen. Plants use various proteins helps in the transport of manganese from
root into the plant. NRAMP family produce a gene that are involved in the
transport of manganese to the plant .NRAMP gene encode a metal transporter
which are involved in the transportation of the Manganese from the roots to the
plants. They are a monomeric protein having 11 Tran’s
membrane domains (Ehrnstorfer
et al., 2014)

Cu
is essential for the development of plant. Cu is involved in many physiological
process that occur in plants such as photosynthesis, respiration. It act as a
cofactor for many proteins and enzymes such as,
laccase, plastocyanin and polyphenol oxidase at cellular level, in the
signaling (C. M., & Pilon, M. (2009). Cu is essential for plants but when
present in excess amount it can cause serious damage to plants. Deficiency of a
Cu effects the physiological process in plants. Many transporters are reported
which are involve in the transport of Cu but most important is COPT transporter
(Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2002).

Therefore,
human diet in numerous ranges of the world does exclude the basic metal
supplement necessities, causing from minor immunological reforms to death (Akkermans
et al., 2016). Efforts have been
done in all over the world to improve the efficiency of plants in uptake of
metals
(López-Rayo
et al., 2015). Developing the crop varieties
in which uptake of metals have been improved Eggert
and von Wiren, 2013)

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