Abstract: In modern generation the automation has become
a basic need for the industries. This paper propound a wireless control and
observing system for an induction motor based on Zigbee communication
arrangement  for safe and economic data
communication in industrial fields where the wired communication is high
precious or impossible due to physical circumstances. This project has two
parts that is transmitter and receiver. In receiver section microcontroller is
used for controlling operation. A microcontroller based system is used for assembling
and storing data and accordingly generating control signal to stop or start the
induction motor wireless through computer interface developed with Zigbee.

1. Introduction

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No other motors are popular such
as Single phase and three phase induction motors because of their vast
applications. Hence it becomes necessary to protect them against faults so as
to ensure uninterrupted operation and functioning. For other types of motor there
are various parameter controlling and monitoring systems, but in case of
induction motor the controlling and monitoring systems are insignificantly used
due to high cost of installation and physical limitations. So as to reduce the
limitations in monitoring and controlling, Zigbee based system is used which
makes it cheap and simple than other. Before starting, first we have to know
what is Zigbee protocol?. Zigbee is a wireless communication device like
Bluetooth and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). Basic difference between
Zigbee and other communication propound is that all zigbee devices relay each
other’s traffic, by passing the wired network perfectly. While Bluetooth
devices connect to another wireless that acts as a focal point and WLAN devices
connect directly to an access point, which is wired to the enterprise network
using Ethernet. The Institute Of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) developed
standards and helped the production of Zigbee protocol and devices that support
this protocol. The disadvantage of using traditional systems is that it
increases the cost whereas digital systems reduce the cost of system. The basic
structure of Zigbee based parameter monitoring and controlling system consists
of microcontroller board and Zigbee devices, one set of microcontroller board
and Zigbee device are near induction motor and acts as transmitter for the
other microcontroller and Zigbee device which is near the computer where the
parameters are displayed on computer using software application. In addition to
Zigbee device various other sensors are used for measuring different
parameters. Wireless sensors network (WSN) system are autonomous and operate unattended
also adaptive to the environment.

2.
ABOUT ZIGBEE TECHNOLOGY

2.1
WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

Wireless sensor network systems
are self- governing and operate disregarded also adaptive to the environment.
The wireless system for monitoring purpose will not only reduce the overall
monitoring system cost, but always provide flexibility in the system in terms
of distance or location. So these systems are widely used in military,
hospitals, home and other commercial areas. According to this feature the
Zigbee becomes the new standard planned for low cost devices in automation,
computer constituent   and home controls. Zigbee standard performs
well at industrial environments. The fundamental design and implementation of
WSN promoting a high power transmission Zigbee based technology. The developed dais
is cost-effective and allows easily in WSN systems and as well as the effect on
reducing energy consumption.

2.2
ZIGBEE NETWORK STRUCTURES

There are three network topologies
which are used. They are star Network, Cluster-tree Network and Mesh Network.
Different network topology built up by zigbee devices like star topology cluster
tree topology and mesh network. For all network topology, there can be only one
coordinator in each network. In cartography there is a coordinator which is
responsible for all over the network. All other devices are back-end devices
and directly communicate with the coordinator. This topology is suitable for
networks with a centralized device and for time critical applications. Next is
a cluster tree network where coordinators are still dependable for the network
initiating and maintenance. However, routers can be used to extend the network.
Routers control data flow by using hierarchical routing strategies in the
network. They also may imply beacon enabled network that is defined in IEEE for
periodical data transmission. In mesh network coordinators seen s responsible
for the network initiating and maintenance .Routers can be used to extend the
network. A mesh network allows full peer to peer communication. A mesh relies
on this way self-healing technology so that if a node fails another route is
used for the data delivery.

3.
MONITORING AND CONTROLLING SCHEMES

This section gives the overview
of the monitoring and controlling scheme of induction motor. A general block
diagram of the proposed schemes is given in fig.1 .A general block diagram of
monitoring and controlling schemes

 
The whole system is divided into two parts –transmitter and receiver.
The monitoring data is simultaneously fed to the microcontroller. This data is
transmitted efficiently and smoothly to receiver and through wireless zigbee
communication protocol. The micro-controller at the transmitter end is so
programmed that if the monitoring parameters of induction motor come out of the
desired or safety limits, a signal will be generated by the micro-controller
which will energize the relay circuit and the contractor cuts the mains supply
to the induction motors.

The data receives at the receiver
end is transferred to the computer system through USB to serial interface. Thus
a continuous monitoring of the parameters of the induction motor can be done
from a remote location far away from the actual working location. If the user
any time wants to stop and start the induction motor, a signal will be given by
the computer system present at the receiver end, which is communicated at the
transmitter end through zigbee protocol. In turn the micro-controller unit
presents at the plant location generates a signal which energizes and
de-energizes the relay circuitry to start and stop the induction motor
respectively. Thus the system not only monitors the operation of the induction motor
but also protects it from the severe faults that commonly occur.

4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

This paper concerned on the l studies on simple motor load
for speed control using wireless technology through the microcontroller. The
experiment is conducted by placing motor at distance of about 80-100 meters and
tested the motor to obtain various speeds by pressing the different keys in the
keypad. Here tON is
maintained constant and tOFF is
varied accordingly. The speed of the motor for various keys selected in the
keypad.

Thus we can vary the speed of induction motor by pressing  respective keys.

 Sr. no.

No. of Keys pressed

Status/speed in rpm

1

Key 1

ON

2

Key 2

OFF

3

Key 3

100

4

Key 4

200

5

Key 5

400

6

Key 6

700

7

Key 7

1100

  Table: speed control
for various keys selected in the keypad

5. CONCLUSION

With the help of the study, a
parameter monitoring system for induction motor based on Zigbee protocol is
achieved and tested successfully. The system developed is capable to perform
such operation as running the motor through RF, stopping it, measuring, monitoring
and controlling the most parameter of the motor like phase current, phase
voltage, wiring temperature, speed. All of these values can be transferred to
the host computer, display on the interface represents graphically; monitoring
and controlling the basic parameters of the induction motor where examined and
achieved in various ways. A new Zigbee technology is a new wireless protocol is
used for the communication. These protocol is widely used various areas for it
better reliability, low power consuming profile, excellent capability, high
flexibility and low cost so it’s significant to embed the Zigbee protocol into
the WSN system that widely applied now in every areas. The system achieved can
be used for industrial application. The whole system may be very useful to
colleges and research institutes that have occasional, technical and industrial
education.

 

 

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