Abstract— In the present era, air and noise pollution is the growing hazardous
issue. It is necessary to monitor air quality and keep it under control for a
better future and healthy living for all. This project is an air quality as
well as sound pollution monitoring system that allows us to monitor and check
live air quality as well as sound pollution in particular areas through IoT
paving way for smart city. This system uses air sensors to sense presence of
harmful gases/compounds in the air and constantly transmit this data to
microcontroller. Also system keeps measuring sound level and reports it to the
online server over IOT. The sensors interact with microcontroller which
processes this data and transmits it over internet. This allows authorities to
monitor air pollution in different areas and take action against it.
Authorities can keep a watch on the noise pollution near industries, schools,
hospitals and no honking areas. If system detects air quality and noise issues,
it alerts authorities so that they can take necessary measures to control the
issue.

 

Keywords—Air and
noise polution,MQ sensors,Ethernet shield,IoT,ATmega 328,Ethernet shield.

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I.
INTRODUCTION:

                Air
pollutants are the substances in the air that can have adverse effects on
humans and eco system. These substances can be solid particles, liquid
droplets, or gases. A pollutant can be of natural origin or man-made.
Pollutants are classified as primary or secondary. Primary pollutants are
usually produced from a volcanic eruption. Other examples include carbon
monoxide gas from motor vehicle exhaust or sulphur dioxide released from
factories. Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they are
formed in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. Ground level ozone
is a prominent example of secondary pollutants.

Noise pollutants are sounds with high
intensity which can affect both human and animal health. Such pollutions are
caused by industries, factories, mills, vehicles, etc. Prolonged exposure to noise of certain frequency pattern leads to severe
health problems.

In order to mitigate the impacts of air and noise pollution on human
health, global environment and worldwide economy, governments have put
tremendous efforts in monitoring air and noise pollution. Sensors are used in
gathering data to monitor air and noise pollution. Initially the sensor devices
are deployed in environment to detect the parameters noise and air pollutants.
The sensor devices are placed at different locations to collect the data to
predict the behavior of particular area. The main aim of this project is to
design and implement  efficient
monitoring system using IoT. Embedded computing is a solution for monitoring
noise and air quality levels.

 

II.EXISTING
METHODOLOGY:

 

The
commercial meters available in the market are Fluke CO- 220 carbon monoxide
meter for CO, Amprobe CO2 meter for CO2, ForbixSemicon LPG gas leakage sensor
alarm for LPG leakage detection. The researchers in this field have proposed
various air quality monitoring systems based on WSN, GSM and GIS. Now each
technology has limited uses according to the intended function, as Zigbee is
meant for users with Zigbee trans-receiver, Bluetooth. GIS based system is
designed, implemented and tested to monitor the pinpoints of air pollution of
any area. It consists of a microcontroller, gas sensors, mobile unit, a
temporary memory buffer and a web server with internet connectivity which
collects data from different locations along with coordinate’s information at
certain time of a day. The readings for particular location are averaged in a
closed time and space. The Global Positioning System (GPS) module is attached
to a system to provide accurate representation of pollution sources in an area.
The recorded data is periodically transferred to a computer through a General
Packet Radio Service (GPRS) connection and then the data will be displayed on
the dedicated website with user acceptance. As a result large number of people
can be benefited with the large

 

III.PROPOSED
METHODOLOGY:

The proposed block diagram consists of Atmega328 arduino, gas sensor,
sound sensor and wifi module. System consists of the sensors used for acquiring
required data from the atmosphere. Sensor used for measuring air pollutants is
MQ135. For the measurement of sound levels a sound sensor module microphone is
used. Air pollution sensors measure the quality of air while sound pollution
sensors measure the sound levels. Data from these sensors are basically analog
signals. These analog signals are converted to its equivalent digital form. The
data can be displayed on the 16×2 LCD connected to the microcontroller. To send
data to a remote location the data from system is sent to the Ethernet shield.
Wi-Fi module is connected to the microcontroller.

The Wi-Fi module interacts with microcontroller using two ports i.e.
transmitter and receiver provided on it. The measured data is sent from the
module to any location within its range from which the data can be fetched
using a laptop / mobile. To give the module the Wi-Fi details, connect the
internet and then provide the IP address of the website.

 

 

 

 

                       

Fig 1: Block Diagram

 

IV. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

 

A.GAS SENSOR                                             

 

        MQ 2, MQ 3 AND MQ 7 sensors are used. Module sensor has lower
conductivity in clean air. When the target combustible gas exist, the sensors
conductivity is higher along with the gas concentration rising. MQ gas sensors
have high sensitivity to Ammonia, Sulphide and Benzene steam and also sensitive
to smoke and other harmful gases. It is a low cost sensor suitable for
different applications like harmful gases/smoke detection. 

Output
voltage of the sensor boosts as the concentration of the measured gases
increases. It gives fast response and recovery. This sensor offers adjustable
sensitivity.

 

 

Fig.2:
MQ series Gas Sensors

 

B.NOISE
SENSOR

                                                 

   Condenser microphones are operated based on
the electrostatic field. They require power from a battery or an external
source. The resulting audio signal is stronger than that of dynamic microphone.
These microphones are sensitive and responsive than the dynamic microscope,
which makes them more suitable for capturing subtle nuances in a sound.

A typical condenser microphone will
include a capacitor having two plates with a voltage applied between them. One
of these plates tends to be very light and acts as the diaphragm. The diaphragm
starts to vibrate when it is struck by sound waves. As a result, the distance
between the two plates changes thereby changing the capacitance. When the
plates are close together when the capacitance increases, a electrical current
is generated. When the plates are further apart, capacitance decreases and a
discharge current is formed. A capacitor supplies the necessary voltage for the
microphone.

 

 C. ETHERNET SHIELD

                                                               

         The Arduino Ethernet Shield V1 allows an
Arduino board to connect to the internet. It is based on the Wiznet W5100ethernet chip (datasheet). The Wiznet W5100 provides a network (IP) stack
capable of both TCP and UDP. It supports up to four simultaneous socket
connections. Use the Ethernet
library to write sketches which connect to the internet using
the shield. The ethernet shield connects to an Arduino board using long
wire-wrap headers which extend through the shield. This keeps the pin layout
intact and allows another shield to be stacked on top.

There
is an onboard micro-SD card slot, which can be used to store files for serving
over the network. It is compatible with all the Arduino/Genuino boards. The
on-board micro SD card reader is accessible through the SD Library. When
working with this library, SS is on Pin 4. The original revision of the shield
contained a full-size SD card slot; this is not supported.The shield also
includes a reset controller, to ensure that the W5100 Ethernet module is
properly reset on power-up.

 

D.16MHz CRYSTALL
OSCILLATOR   

         Crystal oscillator circuit usually
works on the principle of the inverse piezoelectric effect. The applied
electric field will produce a mechanical deformation across some materials.
Thus, it utilizes the vibrating crystal’s mechanical resonance, that is made
with a piezoelectric material for generating an electrical signal of a
particular frequency

 

     

 

E.Atmega328:

 

        The microcontroller that
has been used for this project is from ATmega series in arduino UNO.ATmega is
the RISC based microcontroller fabricated in CMOS (complementary metal oxide
semiconductor) that uses separate bus for instruction and data allowing simultaneous
access of program and data memory. The main advantage of CMOS and RISC
combination is low power consumption resulting in a very small chip size with a
small pin count. The main advantage of CMOS is that it has immunity to noise
than other fabrication techniques.

 

 

 

 

Fig 4:
Transmission and Receiving K

 

Arduino boards consist of an Atmel 8-bit AVR microcontroller (ATmega8,
ATmega168, ATmega328, ATmega1280, ATmega2560) with varying amounts of flash
memory, pins, and features.The 32-bit Arduino Due, based on the Atmel SAM3X8E
was introduced in 2012.The boards use single or double-row pins or female
headers that facilitate connections for programming and incorporation into
other circuits. These may connect with add-on modules termed shields. Multiple, and possibly
stacked shields may be individually addressable via an I²C serial bus. Most
boards include a 5 V linear regulator and a 16 MHz crystal oscillator or
ceramic resonator. Some designs, such as the LilyPad, run at 8 MHz and
dispense with the onboard voltage regulator due to specific form-factor
restrictions.

V. RESULTS
AND ANALYSIS:

This system includes the sensors that detect the parameters causing
pollution. Whenever there is an increase in the level of these parameters the
sensors sense the situation and gives information to the microcontroller. An
Ethernet shield is connected to the microcontroller Using Ethernet shield, this
information is transferred over the internet and can be assessed from anywhere
using the IP address of the Ethernet shield.

This system can be used to monitor air and noise pollution using IoT
industrial sector. This system provides information when pollution levels
exceed the predefined value.  The
implementation of this project will help to monitor the pollution in industries
and also in other places.  By monitoring
the pollution, our project helps in assisting the respective authorities to
take action to control pollution and provide a healthy environment for the
workers to work in. The system is cost effective and easy to operate.

 

 

Fig 7:
Proposed System

 

 

 

VI. Visual Basic Output:

           Figure 6.2 and 6.3 shows a sample
display of the message received notifying the identity of the crack and the
location of the crack. 

 

Fig 8: LCD Display When
Crack is Detected

 

 

Fig 9: GSM Message
Received in Mobile

VII. SUMMARY
AND CONCLUSION:

This system includes the sensors that detect the parameters causing
pollution. Whenever there is an increase in the level of these parameters the
sensors sense the situation and gives information to the microcontroller. An
Ethernet shield is connected to the microcontroller Using Ethernet shield, this
information is transferred over the internet and can be assessed from anywhere
using the IP address of the Ethernet shield.

This system can be used to monitor air and noise pollution using IoT industrial
sector. This system provides information when pollution levels exceed the
predefined value.  The implementation of
this project will help to monitor the pollution in industries and also in other
places.  By monitoring the pollution, our
project helps in assisting the respective authorities to take action to control
pollution and provide a healthy environment for the workers to work in. The
system is cost effective and easy to operate.

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